**Lex Fridman Podcast #359 – Lex Fridman & Andrew Strominger**

**Topics Discussed:** Black holes, Albert Einstein, Quantum gravity, String theory, Holographic principle, De Sitter space, Speed of light, Black hole information paradox, Soft particles, Physics vs mathematics, Theory of everything, Time, Photon rings, Thought experiments, Aliens, Nuclear weapons.

### Andrew Strominger

Andrew Strominger is an American theoretical physicist who is the director of Harvard's Center for the Fundamental Laws of Nature. He has made significant contributions to quantum gravity and string theory. These include his work on Calabi–Yau compactification and topology change in string theory, and on the stringy origin of black hole entropy. He is a senior fellow at the Society of Fellows, and is the Gwill E. York Professor of Physics. Strominger received his bachelor's degree at Harvard College in 1977 and his master's degree at the University of California, Berkeley. He then received his PhD at MIT in 1982 under the supervision of Roman Jackiw. Prior to joining Harvard as a professor in 1997, he held a faculty position at the University of California, Santa Barbara. He is the author of over 200 publications.

## Books Mentioned in this Podcast with Lex Fridman & Andrew Strominger:

## Exploring the Interplay Between Physics and Mathematics

The relationship between physics and mathematics is a fascinating interplay that has shaped our understanding of the natural world and the abstract realms of mathematical theory. While these two disciplines are distinct in their focus and methods, they share a deep and intricate connection. In this article, we will delve into the nuanced differences and intriguing overlaps between physics and mathematics, shedding light on how they collaborate to unravel the mysteries of the universe.

## Physics: Understanding the Natural World

Physics is the science of the physical world, striving to comprehend the fundamental laws governing the behavior of matter and energy. It is a discipline rooted in empirical observations, experiments, and measurements. Physicists seek to describe, predict, and explain the phenomena we encounter in our everyday lives, from the motion of celestial bodies to the behavior of subatomic particles.

One of the key distinctions of physics is its focus on the empirical. In essence, it relies on evidence from the real world to validate and refine its theories. For example, the theory of gravity, developed by Sir Isaac Newton, was born from observing the motion of objects on Earth and the moon’s orbit around our planet. Physics builds its foundation on the tangible, seeking to provide answers to the “how” and “why” of natural phenomena.

## Mathematics: The Realm of Abstraction

Mathematics, in contrast, is an abstract and theoretical field concerned with patterns, structures, and relationships. Mathematicians explore the depths of mathematical concepts and properties without the immediate need for empirical validation. They engage in logical reasoning and rigorous proofs to uncover mathematical truths.

Mathematics is a language of abstraction that transcends the physical world. It provides a framework for expressing relationships and making precise calculations. Mathematicians deal with abstract entities such as numbers, equations, and geometric shapes, which may not always have a direct correlation with the natural world.

## The Interplay Between Physics and Mathematics

While physics and mathematics may seem distinct, their interplay is undeniable and often harmonious. Physicists heavily rely on mathematics as a tool to formulate and solve complex problems. The language of mathematics provides physicists with a means to express physical laws, construct models, and make predictions. For instance, Albert Einstein’s theory of relativity, which revolutionized our understanding of space, time, and gravity, was deeply rooted in advanced mathematical concepts.

Moreover, mathematics serves as a unifying language in the scientific community. It allows physicists from different backgrounds and cultures to communicate effectively and share their findings. Whether it’s describing the motion of planets, the behavior of subatomic particles, or the flow of fluids, mathematics provides a universal platform for collaboration.

In return, physics often inspires the development of new mathematical theories. The need to address complex physical phenomena pushes mathematicians to create innovative mathematical frameworks. Concepts like calculus, differential equations, and complex numbers, initially developed to solve specific physical problems, have since become foundational in mathematics.

## Conclusion

The relationship between physics and mathematics is a testament to the synergy between empirical observation and abstract reasoning. While each discipline has its distinct focus and purpose, their collaboration has propelled our understanding of the natural world to unprecedented heights. Physics seeks to explore the “how” and “why” of the universe, relying on empirical evidence, while mathematics provides the language and tools to formulate, analyze, and solve complex physical problems. Together, they continue to unravel the mysteries of the cosmos, demonstrating the power of interdisciplinary collaboration in the pursuit of knowledge.