Topics Discussed: Putin’s motivations, War in Ukraine, Propaganda, China and American relations, Hope for humanity.

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Noam Chomsky

Noam Chomsky is an American public intellectual: a linguist, philosopher, cognitive scientist, historian, social critic, and political activist. Sometimes called "the father of modern linguistics", Chomsky is also a major figure in analytic philosophy and one of the founders of the field of cognitive science. He is a Laureate Professor of Linguistics at the University of Arizona and an Institute Professor Emeritus at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), and is the author of more than 150 books on topics such as linguistics, war, politics, and mass media. Ideologically, he aligns with anarcho-syndicalism and libertarian socialism.

Books Mentioned in this Podcast with Lex Fridman and Noam Chomsky:

Noam Chomsky on the Future of Human Civilization: Challenges and Hopes

In a world rife with complex geopolitical challenges, Noam Chomsky, a renowned scholar and intellectual, lends his insightful perspective on issues ranging from the Ukraine conflict to the critical question of whether the United States, as a global leader, might face the risk of collapse in the 21st century. This article explores Chomsky’s candid reflections on these pressing matters, shedding light on the dire need for cooperation, climate action, and a change in political priorities to secure the future of human civilization.

The Ukraine Conflict and Putin's Motivation

Chomsky begins by addressing the ominous question of whether a war between the United States and China in the 21st century is plausible. His response is stark: if such a war were to erupt, it would spell disaster for organized life on Earth. With this dire warning, Chomsky sets the stage for a deep dive into global conflicts, starting with the war in Ukraine.

He highlights that understanding Vladimir Putin’s motivation is no simple task. Rather than claiming to possess special insight into Putin’s mind, Chomsky bases his analysis on Putin’s actions and statements over the past two decades. Putin’s ascension to power coincided with the chaos of the 1990s in Russia, where Gorbachev’s proposal for cooperation with the West quickly crumbled. The United States, under Clinton, pushed for market transformation in Russia, leading to economic devastation and the rise of oligarchs.

Putin, who succeeded Gorbachev, continued this policy while consolidating authoritarian control over Russian society. The United States expanded NATO eastward, in violation of previous promises, ultimately increasing tensions in the region. Chomsky provides a comprehensive historical account, emphasizing the significance of the 2014 Maidan Uprising in Ukraine and Russia’s annexation of Crimea, all of which contributed to the current crisis.

Motivation Behind Putin's Actions

Chomsky delves deeper into Putin’s motivation, emphasizing that the Russian leader seeks to establish a legacy of restoring Russia as a great power, controlling its economy, and preventing Ukraine from joining NATO. While some speculate about Putin’s grandiose plans, Chomsky argues that these theories are internally contradictory and fail to align with a realistic assessment of Russian power.

Chomsky is also asked whether power has corrupted Putin over his 22 years in office. He responds by stating that Putin’s policies have changed in response to circumstances, such as his recent announcement recognizing the independence of the Donbas region. However, he sees no fundamental change in Putin’s approach.

The Role of Propaganda in Today's World

Moving beyond specific conflicts, Chomsky comments on the pervasive role of propaganda in today’s world. He notes that while propaganda exists in various forms, it does not necessarily equate to outright lying. Instead, propaganda often involves shaping information within a particular framework or selectively presenting facts to serve specific interests.

Chomsky distinguishes between propaganda and outright lies, emphasizing that the media, by and large, provides reasonably accurate reporting. However, the media’s selection, framing, and presentation of information can collectively form a propaganda system.

Finding the Truth Amidst Propaganda

When asked how to find the truth amidst propaganda, Chomsky encourages critical thinking and exploring alternative sources of information. He advises considering history, documentary records, and multiple perspectives to form a comprehensive understanding of complex issues. Chomsky believes that with effort and an open mind, individuals can navigate through the propaganda system to uncover the truth.

The Future of the United States and Human Civilization

As the conversation continues, Chomsky expresses deep concerns about the future of the United States and its role in preserving human civilization. He asserts that the United States is currently its own greatest threat, torn apart by internal strife, declining democratic processes, and social inequality. Chomsky highlights issues like declining life expectancy and inadequate healthcare as signs of a decaying society.

Chomsky’s overarching message is clear: the United States must take a lead in addressing global crises, such as climate change and the threat of nuclear war, to ensure the survival of organized human society. He argues that the U.S. wields unprecedented global influence and that its actions have profound consequences for the entire world.


In this thought-provoking exploration of Noam Chomsky’s insights, we’ve touched on critical issues facing our world today. From the Ukraine conflict to the role of propaganda, Chomsky’s perspectives offer valuable insights into the challenges we confront. His call for the United States to lead the charge in preserving human civilization serves as a sobering reminder of the collective responsibility we bear in shaping our shared future.